Insomnia in Pregnancy Is Associated

Dorota Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Anna Różańska-Walędziak, Simon Ziemka, Marcin Ufnal, Aneta Brzezicka, Bartłomiej Gmaj, Piotr Januszko,  Sylwia Fudalej, Krzysztof Czajkowski, Marcin Wojnar
depression; eating at night; insomnia; pregnancy

Deterioration in sleep quality seems to be a natural consequence of physical changes during pregnancy. It is still unclear if insomnia in pregnancy is associated with the same factors as chronic insomnia in the general population. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of insomnia during pregnancy.


The study included 266 women (mean age: 30.6 ± 5 years, weeks of pregnancy: 36 [interquartile range 32-38]) recruited at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical University of Warsaw. The assessment of variables was performed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Regestein Hyperarousal Scale (HS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview about different sleep disorders.


Almost 40% of the women in our study received a diagnosis of insomnia based on AIS cutoff scores. We divided individuals with insomnia in terms of insomnia duration: 49% developed insomnia at least 1 year before the study onset and 39.6% during pregnancy. For further analyses we used only the women in whom insomnia developed during pregnancy. The between-group analyses indicated that HS score, BDI score, eating at night, legs tingling, nightmares, snoring, and myoclonus differentiated the groups of individuals with insomnia from those without insomnia. Other variables were not significantly different between the groups. Logistic regression confirmed that depressive symptoms (BDI) and eating at night were significant predictors of insomnia in pregnancy.


Depressive symptoms and night eating are key factors related to insomnia developed during pregnancy.